7 Highly Disturbing Trends in Junk Food Advertising to Children

Laura Gottesdiener, AlterNet
Waking Times 

From bribing children with toys to convincing them to eat a “fourth meal,” the industry is glutted with perverse, profit-chasing schemes.

Ever wonder why one-third of all children in the United States are overweight, if not dangerously obese? According to a slew of recent reports, the cornucopia of junk food advertising to children plays a substantial role in creating this public health crisis. From bribing children with toys and sweepstakes to convincing them to eat a “fourth meal,” the industry is glutted with examples of perverse, profit-chasing schemes to capitalize on children’s appetites at the expense of their long-term health. Here are 7 most perverse trends in junk food advertising to children.

1. Bombarded!
Junk food marketing to children and adolescents has become billion-dollar industry. According to 2006 data, the most recent numbers available, kids experience at least $1.6 billion worth of food advertising a year–the vast majority of the ads geared toward pushing high-calorie and low-nutrition snacks down kids’ throat.

According to data compiled by the nonprofit health organization Food & Water Watch, children see more nearly 5,000 TV food ads every year, and teenagers get bombarded by almost 6,000 annually.

The vast majority of these ads are specifically geared towards children, using tricks like cartoon characters and sweepstakes prizes to make the sugary cereals and fatty hamburgers all the more attractive. As children’s online activity has risen, massive corporations like McDonald’s have also designed child-focused websites, complete with video games that teach children brand recognition, that are getting hundreds of thousands of young visitors a month. In the month of February 2011, for example, 350,000 children under the age of 12 visited McDonald’s two main websites, HappyMeal.com and McWorld.com.

Most disturbingly, the amount of this advertising is steadily increasing. According to a report from Yale University’s Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity, the advertising increased dramatically in only two years, between 2007 and 2009. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 saw a staggering 56 percent more ads for Subway, and 26 percent more ads for McDonald’s. African American children were disproportionately targeted by this advertising, seeing 50 percent more advertisements for fast food than white children of the same age.

2. The ads, not the TV, are what’s making kids fat
While many have complained that sedentary television culture is causing the childhood obesity crisis, new studies suggest that the real culprit may be the constant ads for junk food that children are viewing during commercial break–not the television programs themselves.

A 2006 Institute of Medicine government report stated, “It can be concluded that television advertising influences children to prefer and request high-calorie and low-nutrient foods and beverages.”

Even clearer evidence comes from a long-term study in Quebec, where fast food advertising geared specifically toward children has been banned both online and in-print for the last 32 years. There, researchers discovered that the province has the least childhood obesity of anywhere in Canada, and that the ban decreased children’s consumption by an estimated two to four billion calories.

In Britain, the president of the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Heath, has also a dvocated for the state to ban junk food advertisements on television until after 9 pm, when the majority of children are already asleep.

3. Ten extra pounds–a year
How fat are these television advertisements making kids? According to one recent study, their effects are surprisingly heavy. T he experiment comparedchildren’s food consumption while watching television programs with food commercials, versus programs that ran straight through without any ads. It concluded that kids consumed almost 50 percent more calories while watching the 30-minute program with commercials–a total of almost 100 calories in only a half an hour. Over the course of a year, that would lead to a 10-pound weight gain.

4. Children clueless while industry cashes In
One of the biggest problems with child-specific advertising is that young kids aren’t even able to recognize the commercials for what they are: short segments intended to sell them things. As the Food and Water Watch Report explains, children under the age of four can’t even recognize the difference between a television show and the commercials–the line between content and advertising is completely invisible to them. Children between four and eight may understand that advertisements are different from the T.V. program, but they still don’t recognize that ads are paid commercials intended to convince them to buy something.

However, just because children can’t recognize the ads for what they are doesn’t mean that these commercials don’t affect them. Studies show toddlers are able to accurately identify brand logos and that young children prefer food wrapped in McDonald’s packaging.

5. A fourth meal?
A study of one child-geared advertising campaign, launched by Taco Bell, demonstrates how perverse this marketing really is. In 2006, Taco Bell launched a campaign to convince children to eat a “Fourth Meal,” which is after dinner and before breakfast. (Essentially, the fourth meal is at the time of night when children should be sleeping or doing their homework.)

The campaign kicked off with a website showing children in their pajamas wandering around outside and eating nachos, tacos and other late-night snacks offered by Taco Bell. The foods being marketed often had more than 400 calories, placing them squarely in the meal category. But the goal isn’t just to sell more tacos; it’s actually to carve out an entire new post-dinner market where the consumer base is young children.

6. Holding schools hostage
Increasingly, these types of ads aren’t only on television and online; they are also in schools where the child-marking focus is even more obvious. As budget cuts and austerity measures have swept the nation, schools are increasingly relying on money from vending machine contracts and corporate partnerships. These revenue streams rely on how much food the students buy, meaning that the school earns more money if it stocks these machines with junk food.

7. Industry’s idea of self-regulation: happy meals with apple slices
Due to increasing criticism from the public health community and the federal government, the fast food industry undertook the ambitious task of self-regulation in 2006, launching the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative. Under this initiative, companies pledged to market “better-for-you” foods to children.

Here are selections from the menu they came up with:

Burger King Kids Meals with “Fresh Apple Slices” and fat-free milk or apple juice
Assuming the meal is a plain hamburger, the offering has nearly 400 calories.

McDonald’s Happy Meals with fries, apple slices and fat-free chocolate milk
Assuming the meal is a plain hamburger, the offering has more than 550 calories

Kid Cuisine Meals Primo Pepperoni Double Stuffed Pizza
480 calories, with 15 grams of fat

Chef Boyardee Pepperoni Pizza Ravioli
290 calories

Sometimes the industry’s definition of regulation, is the best argument for government intervention.

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  • Dr. Veronika Rampold

    The only way to avoid such nonsense is a simple old-fashioned austerity policy as to money within families, meaning that one should not spend one’s bucks on unnecessary and nonsensical products, as a question of reason and self-respect; but the base of this policy must be that the money available to the family REALLY is scarce. Then, most kids will be ready to take responsibility by helping Mom and / or Dad save money. If it were just a “pedagogic” thing, kids would quickly sense the lie and start resisting.
    I am 49 years old. We got our first TV when I was four. Mom and me we were very very fond of watching Tv together. When the ads came, I used to often say “Mom, this thing we surely can afford, can’t we?” But mom’s answer always was “no we cannot. We need to keep our money together.” And this was NOT a pedagogic answer but the truth. When I was six I had learnt the lesson, and whenever an ad came which showed something attractive to my kid’s mind I said to meself: “We don’t have the money for this thing, so I don’t want it.”
    Later on, she taught me to calculate prices for keeping a limit when shopping. This, too, not for “Pedagogic reasons” but because of real scarcity of money. I learnt it very well… well enough to, at the age of 13 to 15 when we were almost broke, even keep hands off my own little bit of “pocket money” for the sake of buying bread and butter at month’s ends. And Mom kept notes of how much of my personal money I had spent for buying food instead of using it for personal affairs, and when I was eighteen she paid it all back to me, 1000 DM (I am German).

    • Elizabeth Samson

      Very nice story, and so appropriate to the topic, Doctor. I identify. I was very young when WWII engulfed the Pacific. To add to the horror of a situation that so perplexed us kids, my father left us (Mom, sis and I) virtually penniless. I, just old enough to be in first grade, did the daily food shopping, walking back and forth to the wetmarket, wearing wooden shoes or going barefoot. Early in life, I learned about the prices (and food value) of the array of items offer, to negotiate as low as I could get, and to use the money I made to buy fruit at wholesale and sell them outside our door at retail.
      FWD to American liberation of Manila, I went to whatever public school was open, wherein I was quickly selected to line up (own cup in hand) for UNICEF-provided milk for underweight children.

      Since I settled here, I have observed America as exceedingly extravagant, and that because it is a wealthy country people buy food that is not only detrimental to their health, but also to their pocketbook, both of which they couldn’t care less about. I have tried to influence my grandchildren to spend wisely and never waste food, no matter how “cheap” they are versus the spending money they have or have access to. But few, if any, really listen.

      Reading your story above, I am reminded of what a dear friend of mine commented in response to such and similar complaints: “One can not legislate scarcity!”

      • Elvie Dimagiba

        There are so many disturbing trends in our society today.

        Tv negative influence is on the top of my list. Ads are undoubtedly profit oriented and not necessarily healthy physically nor morally speaking.

        Look at the Carl’s commercial during sports games. Do we really need sexy oriented scenes just to market burgers?

        For every problem there is a solution. Parents should educate their own kids at an early stage. The government can’t manage its own conglomerate and corruption, let’s not expect legislators to take care of our kids.

        Parents should know better that kids need to sleep early, watch lesser tv and read more books, play lesser interactive games but rather go out and play in the schools or parks. Inconvenient as it is to cook homemade food, parents must take time to teach the value of eating healthy. And if on rare occasion while traveling, fast food may be the only option, then kids should learn to order lesser greasy, sweet and salty food but order more of vegetable and fruit that are not drenched in sugar and oil.

        Please continue the awareness WAKING TIMES, open up the minds of our polluted and commercialized society.

        Education might need to start with new generation parents in order for our future leaders to turn this country back to what our forefathers died for.

        Thank you for your interests.

  • Louise Brown

    Turn off the idiot box!! I have, my children are much happier, healthier (eg outside play) and whenever we drive pass a fast food monolith they say – that food is rubbish isn’t it Mummy?

  • Italics Mine

    Is this evidence of child abuse?

  • sundown

    Well done piece! Thank you..

  • Elsa

    A few apple slices or fat-free chocolate milk are somehow going to convert a disgusting junk meal into a healthy one?! When you consume dairy after protein it destroys the absorption of anything beneficial that may be in that meal. Fruit should be eaten on an empty stomach. You question industry self-regulation versus government regulation but I would say neither. Government guidelines are a joke Carbohydrate based meals, especially wheat, are a disaster for health. If people ate proper, unadulterated food they would both naturally eat less and improve their health.

  • Sss

    And..these children. Do they have parents ?

    Stupidity is hereditary. And it should be. Otherwise we would die out thousands of years ago.

  • Gintaras

    End of prop 37 in Calif signed the doom of all of us.

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