Peter A. Kirby, Guest
For about 20 years now, the people running the New Manhattan Project have been saturating our atmosphere and forcing us to ingest the witches’ brew coming out of the back of their airplanes. It is not normal jet engine exhaust. Contrary to what the ignorant and deceptive propose, the most common chemtrail sprays have been found to consist of aluminum, barium and strontium in that order. Probably hundreds of times, lab tests from around the world have confirmed this. If you do not know what the New Manhattan Project is, please see the author’s previous article “Chemtrails Exposed: A History of the New Manhattan Project.”
Rainwater sample test results from Europe and America showing elevated levels of aluminum, barium and strontium have been compiled at GeoEngineeringWatch.org and uChemtrailsProjectUK.com. Many other test results can be found at GlobalSkywatch.com. All over the Internet, from all over the world, countless other verifiable test results have been posted.
As this author has repeatedly shown, whenever we gain a basic understanding of any given aspect of the New Manhattan Project, we can also subsequently find lots of evidence supporting its historical evolution in a coherent chronological order. Our discovery of the chemtrail spray ingredients and the historical development thereof is no exception. This is not a coincidence, but it is quite interesting when one considers that all Western governments continue to claim that this Project does not exist. In this case, the relevant historical evolution is that of aluminum, barium and strontium used as ingredients in chemical sprays designed for use in weather modification and the atmospheric sciences. Along with brief technical discussions, this paper examines that history.
Different substances / different uses
Aluminum oxide is the main substance and the focus of this article. A litany of evidence for aluminum being used as a nucleant (as they call it) for weather modification is in the next section.
The New Manhattan Project utilizes aluminum oxide particles to modify the weather. When these tiny particles are dispersed and subsequently hit with the appropriate electromagnetic energy, they heat up. Electromagnetic perturbation of atmospheric particles for the purpose of weather modification distinguishes the New Manhattan Project. When large lower-atmospheric volumes of particles are heated, a high pressure zone is created. If one can create a high pressure zone, one can push low pressure systems around. In combination with ionospheric heaters’ documented ability to redirect the jet stream and many other techniques, this is how they modify the weather.
Barium is used not for modifying the weather, but rather as a tracer for gathering atmospheric data. Barium performs in this capacity because barium can be radioactive. It shows up on radar well. The literature pertaining to weather modification and the atmospheric sciences is full of references to radioactive materials such as barium being used as atmospheric tracers. Let us refer to a 1962 report by the National Academy of Sciences titled “The Atmospheric Sciences 1961-1971.” This report states, “Radioactive substances of suitable half lifes [sic] injected into the air are very useful as tags and may be used to study air motions on a variety of scales. Tracers used in sufficient amounts for this purpose could add immeasurably to our knowledge of the currents of the atmosphere and the dispersion within air masses.”
A little later in “The Atmospheric Sciences 1961-1971,” the authors expand further upon the usefulness of radioactive isotopes. Under the heading “Research on Trace Substances,” the report’s authors write, “Where radioactive compounds are involved, containing tritium or carbon 14, radioactive decay times lead to a calculation of the time elapsed since the formation of the water or carbon dioxide in the sample. Thus, it is possible to date the rain water and the water in wells, rivers, and oceans, and to use this information to study the exchange processes between the upper and lower atmosphere, between the atmosphere and the oceans, and between the atmosphere and the Earth. Research in this area should be vigorously pursued.” This passage suggests that barium is being used today as a way to trace the entire hydrological cycle.
In the 1972 Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences report a more technical discussion of this type of program is found. On page 18 it reads:
Atomic Energy Commission research in precipitation scavenging by convective storms requires knowledge of both the storm and cloud dynamics and the microphysics of the precipitation processes. Atomic Energy Commission laboratories and contractors have developed considerable expertise in the use of selective chemical tracers which can be introduced into the storm or cloud as a function of time, altitude or position. Subsequent analysis of the tracers in the resulting precipitation provides details of dynamical features of the storm, hydrometer growth rates and mechanisms and the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation.
Two types of tracers have been used, specific chemical elements rare in abundance in the atmosphere, and the cosmogenic radionuclides produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic ray actions with argon. The chemical tracers are introduced into the storm as aerosols via aircraft and/or surface generators. Analysis of the resulting precipitation for the tracer elements provides insight into the time scales and trajectories of the air motions within convective storms and into the hydrometeor growth rates and deposition patterns.
Cosmogenic radionuclides (particularly Na-24, Cl-38 and Cl-39 with 15 hr, 37 min, and 55 min half-lives respectively) can also be measured in precipitation. These are produced in the atmosphere at known production rates, attached to the natural aerosol and coexisting, presumably, with freezing nuclei, condensation nuclei and inactive aerosols. Because of their differing half lives, the cosmogenic nuclide ratios can be used to determine cloud development times and hydrometeor growth rates and mechanisms. The use of inert chemical tracers and the cosmogenic radionuclides together affords the opportunity to relate the dynamics of the cloud or storm system to precipitation effects such as heavy rainfall, or damaging hail through severe storm research programs such as NHRE, STORMFURY, and Metromex. Tracer techniques also offer unique potential in the evaluation of the various weather modification projects currently being conducted by the various Federal Agencies.
Currently, the AC support of the Illinois State Water Survey in Metromex is directed at the use of chemical tracers to determine the dynamics and efficiency or urban modified severe storms to ingest and precipitate atmospheric aerosols. The tracers are released either by aircraft into the storm updraft or from the surface.
Although it is largely unclear at this time why strontium is showing up in the samples, strontium may be used as a photosensitive catalyst. It could be used to free associated aluminum from the oxide form when exposed to UV and visible light. Free aluminum is much more conductive than aluminum oxide and therefore allows for better propagation of the New Manhattan Project’s electromagnetic waves.
Added strontium may also be showing up West of the Rockies as fallout from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. There is a very good chance that storm updrafts over the Pacific Ocean are picking up strontium from Fukushima, which continues to discharge radioactive seawater as well as airborne pollutants.
Aluminum and weather modification
Since at least 1954, researchers have been busy developing the aluminum concoctions ultimately used in today’s New Manhattan Project. This section recounts the chronological development of aluminum nucleants utilized in weather modification and the atmospheric sciences.
In 1958, Norihiko Fukuta (1931-2010) of Nagoya University in Japan published a paper titled “Experimental Investigations on the Ice-Forming Ability of Various Chemical Substances” which appeared in the Journal of Meteorology. This paper referenced an earlier paper (1954) by Asada, T., H. Saito, T. Sawai, and S. Matsumoto. Fukuta asserts that this earlier foursome discovered the usefulness of aluminum oxide as a nucleant. Fukuta’s paper reads, “Asada  tested the activities of various substances of cubic and hexagonal shape considered similar to ice structure and consequently discovered the effectiveness of aluminum oxide.” The author has been unable to find this 1954 document. 1954 is the earliest reference to aluminum oxide used as a nucleant known to the author.
Fukuta’s 1958 paper also details his research utilizing Al2O3 (aluminum oxide) as an experimental nucleant.
|Norihiko Fukuta at the cloud chamber.
Image source unknown
The 1962 U.S. patent #3,274,035 “Metallic Composition for Production of Hygroscopic Smoke” by Lohr A. Burkardt and William G. Finnegan describes how aluminum, barium and strontium may be used as ingredients in, “…a composition which produces hygroscopic smoke for use in influencing the weather.”
The 1964 U.S. patent #3,140,207 “Pyrotechnic Composition” by Mary M. Williams and Lohr A. Burkardt describes how aluminum can be used in compositions which have, “…use in cloud seeding.”
Also in 1964, the Navy wrote, “The development of devices to produce hygroscopic nuclei is also continuing. Pyrotechnic mixtures and devices are being developed and tested which produce chlorides of lithium, magnesium, aluminum, and sodium. Trials have been made using hygroscopic liquids for the dispersal of warm fogs.”
1964 was a busy year. This was also when the National Science Foundation (NSF) presented the work of a Dr. A.C. Zettlemoyer (1915-1991). Albert Zettlemoyer was an important figure in this development. Zettlemoyer discovered that small particles with both hydrophilic (water attracting) and hydrophobic (water resisting) sites were able to hold more water than uniformly hydrophilic particles. The NSF’s sixth annual weather modification report explains:
For a number of years, Albert C. Zettlemoyer has been conducting a study of the surface properties of nucleating materials and the physical and chemical characteristics which make them efficient nucleators. He has hypothesized that a good ice-nucleating agent, such as silver iodide, is primarily a hydrophobic material, and contains a percentage of hydrophilic areas dispersed about its surface. These hydrophilic areas form the nucleus around which water molecules may cluster and form centers upon which ice forms. According to the investigator, optimized nucleating efficiency occurs when 20 to 30 percent of the nucleating surface is covered with hydrophilic sites and the remainder of the material is hydrophobic. Based upon this hypothesis, the investigator has been successful in synthesizing several active nucleating materials possessing the proper hydrophilic to hydrophobic balance. Silicas, clays, alumina, bauxite, and magnesite have become good nucleating materials when suitably treated. In addition, polymer-coated and surface-esterified silicas have been prepared which have shown excellent nucleating properties in the cold chamber.
Prior to the above disclosure in the NSF’s sixth annual report, Dr. Zettlemoyer was featured in an article which appeared in the American Chemical Society’s Chemical and Engineering News. Dated December 9, 1963, the article reads:
A new series of artificial nucleating agents for possible use as cloud seeders in cloud modification work can now be produced. Now that the surface chemistry of the most effective nucleating agent (silver iodide) has been recognized, it’s possible to seek out other materials which nucleate or promote crystallization in gaseous and liquid media such as water clouds, according to Dr. A. C. Zettlemoyer of the surface chemistry laboratory of Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.
New and cheap cloud seeders (or nucleating agents), inorganic materials are used as substrates. Silicas, usually of colloidal size, are very desirable inorganic substrates, the Lehigh chemist finds. Other substrates can be used, but it is difficult to find cheaper ones than silicas, he says. These include carbon black, magnesite, limestone, dolomite, clay, bauxite, alumina, magnesia, and lime.
|A.C. Zettlemoyer et al, 1963|
It looks like the above photo has been altered. Zettlemoyer’s head is too big for his body and it is significantly bigger than those of the others standing next to him. Also, it appears that Zettlemoyer’s head is lit from the right while everything else is lit from the left.
Mr. Zettlemoyer was president of the American Chemical Society in 1981.
The Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a 1970 report titled “Proceedings of the Twelfth Interagency Conference on Weather Modification.” Contained therein is a report titled “National Science Foundation Program in Weather Modification for FY 1970” by P. H. Wyckoff, the program director of the National Science Foundation’s Atmospheric Sciences Section. Mr. Wyckoff writes, “A number of aluminas ranging from particle sizes of 1 to 0.05 microns have been plated with silver which has been converted to silver iodide by exposure to iodine vapor.”
A little later he continues, “Professor L. Grant and Professor M. Corrin have jointly assumed responsibility as co-principal investigators for the nuclei simulation facility at CSU.” Colorado State University (CSU) is where these experiments were conducted.
The 1971 U.S. patent #3,630,950 “Combustible Compositions for Generating Aerosols, Particularly Suitable for Cloud Modification and Weather Control and Aerosolization Process” by Henry M. Papee, Alberto C. Montefinale, Gianna L. Petriconi, and Tadeusz W. Zawidzki suggests using powdered aluminum in combination with an oxidizer whereby, “…a finely dispersed aerosol smoke consisting of moderately hygroscopic condensation nuclei, and a non-hygroscopic gas are simultaneously evolved, said gas acting to disperse said nuclei.”
Of the handful of substances Papee et al tested, aluminum was found to be, “…the most suitable metal since, besides being relatively cheap, it may be considered inert at room temperature (this characteristic is an important factor for safety in the preparation and transportation of the described compositions), it yields remarkable heat of combustion which favours a good continuity of reaction and a good aerosol dispersion. Moreover it is available on the market in the suitable purity and particle size.”
During experiments detailed in a 1977 paper by J.H. Shen, K. Klier and A.C. Zettlemoyer, aluminum was used in combination with something called a phlogopite. These phlogopites are described as a new breakthrough. “Ice Nucleation by Micas” states, “A fluorine mica, fluorophlogopite, has been found to produce higher bulk water freezing temperature than many other nucleating agents including the parent hydroxyphlogopite and even silver iodide. It is the most efficient catalyst yet found in this Laboratory.”
The 1978 U.S. patent #4,096,005 “Pyrotechnic Cloud Seeding Composition” by Thomas W. Slusher and Nuclei Engineering, Inc. of Louisville, Colorado describes how aluminum can be used in compositions designed for weather modification.
In 1991 United States patent #5,003,186 “Stratospheric Welsbach Seeding for Reduction of Global Warming” was assigned to the Hughes Aircraft Corporation. The patent describes a method for dispersing particulates into the upper atmosphere in order to save us from global warming. The author David B. Chang suggests that aluminum oxide be used for this purpose.
“One proposed solution to the problem of global warming,” it reads, “involves the seeding of the atmosphere with metallic particles. One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude.”
The first mention of aluminum occurs in this passage, “The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose.”
The second mention of aluminum occurs a little later. It reads, “Another class of materials having the desired property includes the oxides of metals. For example, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is one metal oxide suitable for the purpose and which is relatively inexpensive.”
The Hughes Aircraft Corporation was acquired by and is now integrated into Raytheon.
In the mid-nineties, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories scientists Edward Teller, Lowell Wood and Roderick Hyde wrote a series of papers calling for the spraying of megatons of aluminum to save us from global warming. The mid-nineties was when reports of chemtrail spraying in American skies began pouring in.
In their 1997 paper “Global Warming and Ice Ages,” the Livermore Labs trio wrote, “It has been suggested that alumina injected into the stratosphere by the exhaust of solid-rocket motors might scatter non-negligible amounts of sunlight. We expect that introduction of scattering-optimized alumina particles into the stratosphere may well be overall competitive with use of sulfur oxides; alumina particles offer a distinctly different environmental impact profile.”
They continue to espouse the virtues of stratospheric alumina in the footnotes writing, “Alumina, like sulfate, is ubiquitous in the terrestrial biosphere, and its stratospheric injection seemingly poses no significant environment issues.”
In his 2010 paper “Photophoretic Levitation of Engineered Aerosols for Geoengineering,” top geoengineer David Keith suggests particles consisting of both aluminum and barium be used for the purpose of weather modification. Dr. Keith’s proposed aluminum and barium particle sandwiches suggest that one chemtrail spray material may simultaneously serve the dual purposes of weather modification (aluminum) and atmospheric tracing (barium). Keith notes that these particles can be engineered to employ a layer of aluminum oxide to protect internal free aluminum from oxidation. Also in 2010, in the feature documentary What in the World Are They Spraying?, David Keith says,
…on the environmental consequences of alumina in the stratosphere. There’s a bunch of papers going back to the seventies that look at the radiative and ozone destroying properties of alumina in the stratosphere and those make you think it might be useful. Do this in just a jet in a very simple way. Make high quality alumina particles just by spraying alumina vapor out which oxidizes. So it’s certainly in principle possible to do that.
David Keith is a professor at Harvard University who is heavily invested in geoengineering. According to his Harvard bio, “David divides his time between Cambridge where he is Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Public Policy in the Harvard Kennedy School; and Calgary, where he helps lead Carbon Engineering a company developing technology to capture of CO2 from ambient air.”
Dr. Keith has received geoengineering grants from the Fund for Innovative Climate and Energy Research. According to the Stanford website, “Grants for research are provided to Harvard University from gifts made by Mr. Bill Gates from his personal funds.”
Image source: Harvard University
The April, 2012 edition of the Journal of Weather Modification featured a paper titled “A non-silver Iodide Cloud Seeding Nucleus – Al2O3.” In this paper, the authors William G. Finnegan and Lee Ates propose a new aluminum oxide weather modification spray to replace the industry standard silver iodide.
If the reader will recall, William Finnegan (1923-2011) was also one of the co-authors of the aforementioned 1962 U.S. patent “Metallic Composition for Production of Hygroscopic Smoke.” According to a Journal of Weather Modification obituary, Bill Finnegan worked at the China Lake Naval Ordinance Test Station where his work garnered him several patents. The focus of his career was that of applied research on the generation and characterization of artificial ice nucleants. After his work at China Lake, Mr. Finnegan became a professor at Colorado State University (CSU). After CSU and until his retirement, Dr. Finnegan worked at Nevada’s Desert Research Institute.
|William G. Finnegan|
This investigation has found that the aluminum particles dispersed as part of tod