Rich Hoyle, Contributor
In October of 2005, international media covered a sensational story of a man claiming to have discovered a group of huge, previously unknown ancient Pyramids in Europe. The man, Anthropologist Dr. Semir Osmanagic, made the fantastic announcement to journalists that he had found the biggest and oldest pyramids in the world and incredibly they were to be found buried in the most unlikely of places… Bosnia. The ancient structures, Osmanagic explained, were buried in the hillsides surrounding a small sleepy town called Visoko, located 25km North-West of the Bosnian Capital, Sarajevo. The town, now barely known for its once booming leather industry, would become the centre of a fierce international debate which, after eight years, continues on through to this day.
In 2006, after initial probing and surveying, Osmanagic created the not for profit, “Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation” and in the summer of that year large scale excavations began. Almost immediately after Osmanagic started his project the authenticity of his miraculous find was to be called into question. Zahi Hawass, archaeologist and later becoming “Egyptian Minister of Antiquities,” released a statement in June of 2006 in which he strongly criticised Osmanagic and his Pyramid hypothesis. Giving his reasons, Hawass referred to several large blocks that had been excavated by the research teams, explaining that “No one can say that these stones were transported by human beings since each weighs approximately 40 tons.” Hawass’s explanation for the blocks and the pyramid shaped hill was to be that Osmanagic must be “hallucinating” , denying the existence of any pyramids in Bosnia. Dr Robert Schoch, a geologist of notoriety for his study of the Egyptian Sphinx, also issued a disagreeable statement after he visited the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids that year. In his comments of the trip, Schoch said he saw nothing unusual in the hills around the Bosnian town. In a similar fashion to that of Hawass, Schoch’s sentiment towards Osmanagic’s theory was that the Pyramids must be “imaginary” and that the pyramids are nothing more than natural geological formations. Later, at the end of the first year of excavations, in December 2006, seven prominent members of the European Association of Archaeologists issued a condemning joint statement. The archaeologists, including Director of the Council for British Archaeology, Dr. Mike Heyworth and another, Professor Hermann Parzinger, President of the German Archaeological Institute, accused Osmanagic of duping the world with his claims of pyramids in Bosnia. In their statement it read, “This [Pyramid] scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science.”. However, despite the barrage of strong condemnation Osmanagic and his team have continued investigating the sites around Visoko for a further eight years.
According to Osmanagic, there are no fewer than 5 buried Pyramids within the vicinity of the town of Visoko with a possibility for as many as nine in total. The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, the largest and most obviously pyramidal in shape of the Bosnian Pyramids, is over 270m tall and has an estimated mass 39 times greater than that of the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt . At 190m tall, the second largest of the Bosnian Pyramids is the “Pyramid of the Moon,” which is no less than 50m taller than the Egyptian Great Pyramid. Close by to the Moon Pyramid towards the South-West is an unusually shaped structure named “Temple of Mother Earth‟. This structure has a form similar to that of a crescent moon or amphitheatre and is of an impressive size, equalling that of its neighbouring Pyramids. Surrounding the Bosnian pyramid complex are also numerous, more modestly sized supporting structures including mounds and tumuli, the most accessible of which is found several kilometres North East from the centre of the pyramid complex. Named after the village in which it is found, “Vratnica Tumulus‟ is of a similar conical shape and size to the famous tumulus “Silbury Hill‟, located in Wiltshire, UK. Osmanagic also claims that the presence of numerous subterranean passages found under Visoko belong to the Pyramid complex, interconnecting each of the structures from below and running for as many as hundreds of kilometres beneath the ground.
Because of the shear size of the site, as it stands today the meticulous work undertaken by Dr Semir Osmanagic has resulted in less than 1% of the Pyramidal structures to have been so far uncovered, leaving much of the evidence which would support Osmanagic‟s theory still buried beneath the soil. With limited financial backing from the local Bosnian government, Osmanagic relies substantially on an international team of volunteers which make their way to Visoko each summer to assist with the excavations. Since 2010, hundreds of inquisitive people from as far away as Peru, Argentina,
Malaysia and Australia have made the journey to donate their time and efforts to the project, with people in their hundreds of thousands also visiting as tourists to see the progress of the project for themselves. But can all of these people, like Osmanagic, be suffering from a shared delusion, mistaking naturally formed hills for giant pyramids? Surely after eight years, if the case against Osmanagic’s theory were so strong, shouldn’t this hoax have been laid to rest by now? Perhaps. Or perhaps not, as the majority of those who criticise the project rather than providing sound scientific evidence supporting their position unfortunately resort to the age old tactic of character assassination, targeting the qualities of the man rather than the factual evidence Osmanagic presents. On the other side of the argument then, what, if any, is the evidence that supports Osmanagic’s so-called outlandish claims? Is Osmanagic really suffering from an eight year prolonged hallucination or can he substantiate his history changing theory with factual evidence?
Here then below are nine cases of evidence that support Osmanagic’s grand Bosnian pyramid theory, which remain unaddressed by those who stand against the existence of Pyramids in Bosnia.
1) Cardinal Alignments
The Bosnian Pyramid of Sun, Moon and Dragon each have their four facets perfectly aligned towards the cardinal points, North, South, East and West. This orientation is a common property shared amongst many of the globes ancient Pyramids including the Pyramids of Egypt; Giza and those of China; Shaanxi Province (Photos 3&4). Unique however to the Visoko complex is the fact that the three main Pyramids each have one of their sides built into the landscape surrounding them, providing an “access plateau‟ to their peaks, which is unlike the common “free-standing” pyramid design seen elsewhere around the globe. Confirmation of the Bosnian Pyramids exactitude with geographic North has been obtained by both topographic mapping and satellite imagery. Measurements carried out by Dr. Amer Smailbegovic using the “Automated Linear-Anomaly Detector” satellite system, used for measuring tectonic lineaments, confirmed break angles of 43.822 degrees (+/- 1.6) at three of the undamaged corners (Figure 2). The exception is the South West corner of the Sun Pyramid, having become eroded in recent times, possibly due to the presence of an abandoned quarry where material was extracted from. The strong outer casing of the ancient giant pyramid structure was used in order to build the now ruined medieval fortress at the top of the Sun Pyramid, where Bosnian royalty once resided. 
Visual observation of the Sun Pyramids perfect alignment with the cardinal points can also be made, as is captured in Photo 2. The aerial photograph displays how late afternoon sunlight clearly illuminates the Pyramid of the Suns Western facet and access plateau while the Northern face remains in complete shadow. Not only does the photograph above highlight the incredible accuracy to which the facets of this pyramid have been built to but that it also displays the exact continuation of slope angle between the base and peak of the Northern corners.
2) Topographical Alignments
As well as being aligned with the four cardinal points, the Pyramidal structures of Visoko also share alignments that are relative to each other (Figure 3). The first and most striking of the structural alignments present is the near perfect equilateral triangle formed between the peaks of the Sun, Moon and Dragon pyramids. Each side of this triangle is 2.2km in length (+/- 2%) and has three internal angles of 60°. Further, by producing a circumcircle around the equilateral triangle it encapsulates the peak of another topographic highpoint South-West from the Sun Pyramid. Named Cetnica, this spot height is the second highest peak in the area and is also found to have four facets, each orientated according to the cardinal points. Nearby, the highest peak within the local vicinity of Visoko is Krtnica, found west from Cetnica. By drawing a line (1) between the two highest peaks and extending that line eastwards, it indicates that both Krtnica and Cetnica are aligned with the Sun-Moon-Dragon equilateral triangles barycentre.
Line (2) indicates that the spot height of the Pyramid of the Moon lies at a vector exactly east from the spot height of the Pyramid of Love. This line when extended in a Westerly direction past the Pyramid of Love reaches yet another spot height as yet unnamed, its shape distinctly tetrahedral. The third line (dark blue/purple (3)) is constructed along three spot heights; The Pyramid of Sun, The Pyramid of Love and the Temple of Mother Earth. It can be seen that the distance between the Sun and Love spot heights along this vector is exactly 1/3rd of the length of the entire line. The final alignment (4) highlighted in the above diagram shows that the peaks of Cetnica and the Pyramid of the Moon occur along the same vector, terminating at the spot height of Smreke, an elongated mound behind the Pyramid of the Moon, towards the East.
With these examples, it demonstrates that numerous topographic alignments reaffirm each other, particularly those of Cetnica, Sun, Moon and Love, tying in all of the structures together. Their existence infers the valley must have been designed in its entirety according to certain principles first, prior to being built, and that it is not the result of tectonic forces deforming the landscape in a random fashion. The figure of a circumscribed triangle similar to that formed by the alignments of the Bosnian Pyramids is a particular glyph that has been revered and adapted symbolically throughout the ages by many a school of thought.
Within the Christian doctrine the triangle is used to represent the Holy Trinity, seen depicting the triune nature of God. The all encompassing circle that is added to surround the triangle represents the universe, or eternity, the limit of which is that of God himself. The medieval philosophical society of the Rosicrucians would also use it as their symbol of creation, known to them as the “Tetragrammaton” . In this Rosicrucian ideogram (Figure 5) the circle is replaced by Nehushstan the serpent, seen swallowing its own tail and representing Earthly creation made manifest, with the power of perpetual motion and self sufficiency.
By those who practice the art of Astrology, the figure of the circumscribed triangle has been used diagrammatically within an individuals horoscope or birth chart (Figure 6). During a time when three planets move to align themselves in the form an equilateral triangle the arrangement is known as the “Grand Trine” and accordingly is a significant and powerful event for that individual. Alchemists have also utilized the triangle and circle, combined with the square and a smaller circle within (figure 4). To the alchemists this figure represents the mystical properties of Pythagorean geometry and is often referred to as the symbol for ‘Squaring the Circle.” This alchemical symbol may also be used to represent the four elements with water as the inner circle, the square for earth, the outer circle for air and the triangle as fire, or in Greek “Pyr.”
Within the Visoko Pyramid Valley a second group of topographic alignments also exists concurrently with the primary group, extending far beyond the central equilateral triangle. Figure 7 shows how various spot heights are aligned with each other along two separate axis (black lines), one running exactly North-South, the other approximately East-West (Note; alignments extend beyond the limits of the included figure). This arrangement, which may at first appear simply as a chance occurrence, by connecting Centnica peak found along the N-S axis with the spot height of Cella on the opposite side of the valley upon the E-W axis, it produces a triangle with base angles of approximately 51° (solid red lines). The significance of finding such a triangle hidden within the Visoko Pyramid Valley topography is made apparent when one recounts that the Great Pyramid of Giza‟s slope inclination is measured as being 51° 50′ 40″ and therefore is of the same proportion. 
To add further significance, such a triangle can be used to represent our own Earth-Moon planetary system. In figure 7, the blue inner circle has its centre placed at the triangles bisector, with its diameter equalling that of the triangles total base length. A second outer circle, with its radius identical to the height of the triangle can be drawn, seen touching the triangles apex. At this point a third, smaller circle can be created, its centre at the apex of the triangle and its radius made to reach down to the inner circle. In this way, the third and smallest circle is of a proportion to the inner circle exactly as the Moon is in proportion to the Earth. This arrangement, as is the case of figure 4 previously, also represents the “Squaring of the Circle,” which can be seen within the image inlay of figure 7. Here, the length of the grey squares side is equal to the diameter of the inner circle, while the perimeter of the square is equal to the circumference of the largest outer circle.
3) Sixteen Wind Cartography
In Ancient Greece, maritime admiral and geographer “Timosthenes‟ introduced the use of a 12 pointed, or twelve wind compass which, used for navigation, divided 360° into 12 equal divisions of 30°. By using a 6×6 square grid based on the length of a degree, a 12 wind system made it easy to draw equilateral triangles. Using the equator as the baseline, accurate trisecting of a hemisphere was made possible. Later another Ancient Greek, “Eratosthenes,” who has been mistakenly ascribed as being first to calculate the Earths circumference, abandoned the 12 wind system for the more simple 8 wind compass design. Based on a 4×4 grid this system bisected angles, rather than trisected, and produced equal divisions of 45° within a 360° circumference. It was this method of using 8 points that was favoured later by Roman navigators and continued to be used throughout the medieval period.
The concept of using a square grid made it possible to accurately produce lines of latitude upon a plane. By drawing one of the vertical grid lines according to True (geographic) North, a meridian of longitude would be produce, therefore any line which intersected at 90° would be a line of latitude.Charles Hapgood, who produced a magnificent cartographic investigation through his book “Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings,” studied amongst others, the Piri Reis map (Figure 10). Composed by an Ottoman admiral in 1513, Hajji Ahmed Muhiddin Piri collected cartographic fragments from many different sources in order to compile his famous map. Many of these fragments are believed to be copies of copies, passed on through the ages prior to coming into the possession of Piri Reis himself. One of several important observations made by Hapgood and others is that the Piri Reis map can be seen to depict the coastlines of Africa and South America with a longitudinal accuracy discrepancy of less than half a degree. An anomaly to say the least as at the time of composition it was thought impossible to accurately calculate longitude, due to technological limitations of timekeeping. Not only this but it is also believed that the map contains an accurate representation of parts of the Antarctic coastline prior to how it appears in more recent times with its extended ice sheet cover. Hapgood was able to surmise that the centre of the Piri Reis map was calculated around Egypt having realised that the underlying geometry behind the map was based upon the use of 8×8 grids. Similar to the Ancient Greek 4×4 8 wind navigation system, the 8×8 grid system produces 16 wind Rose des vents with intervals of 22.5°. By using the 8×8 grids it allowed for accurate mapping of a spherical surface upon a flat plane as a separate grid could be used for each map fragment, using different north’s, in order to compensate for the deviation of parallel meridians as they became located further and further afield from the centre of the map.
Figure 11 is a topographic map of Visoko and its surrounding pyramids overlaid by an 8×8 grid as used by Hapgood to calculate the centre of the Piri Reis map. It can be observed that the centre of the grid is located in the same position where we find the barycentre of the Sun- Moon-Dragon equilateral triangle within the previous alignment map. All of the highest topographic spot heights within each area of the grid can be seen to occur along the gridlines. The most important locations i.e. Sun, Moon, Dragon, Love, Krtnica, and Cetnica all occur at intersecting points on the grid, where two or sometimes even three lines cross each other. The only exception here is Temple of Mother Earth, which remains considered as an important site, though does not follow the pattern of falling on one of the intersecting points. Regardless of the reason why this is the case however, the spot height still occurs along a gridline. The red dots signify known sites of archaeological interest, including Bedem, South-West of the Dragon Pyramid, where another medieval fort is situated on top of an unusually shaped topographic high. The river Fojnička that runs through the Pyramid valley also appears to run its course according to the overlaying grid, as does the orientation of the street plan of Visoko town itself, coincidentally or otherwise.
In “Map of the Ancient Sea Kings,” Hapgood hypothesised that the existence of the Piri Reis map was proof that there had, at some point in the far distant past, been a global mapping project and that the original cartographers of certain map fragments used within the Piri Reis map had full knowledge of advanced mathematics, astronomy, navigation skills and therefore had indeed the ability to accurately measure the spherical globe.
By the above example, we find then that the use of an 8×8 grid 16 wind system in the ancient past appears to not be limited to cartography and navigation but extends to being used within the underlying design principles of huge architectural projects as is seen within the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids and also at the Giza pyramid complex, Egypt (Figure 12). In Bosnia, the existence of multiple systems, both an underlying grid as well as the noted topographical alignments in the previous section, co-existing together within the same space, indicates a truly remarkable feat of multi-dimensional architectural design, planning and execution.
4) Hollow Spaces
During the Bosnian conflict of the 1990s, it is said by many of the townspeople that ballistic ordinance which landed and exploded nearby Visoko could be heard echoing out through the “hills” after impact. This somewhat anecdotal evidence suggested the “hills” may in fact have hollow spaces within, leading to the sonic reverberations that were heard by the locals.
More recently, using the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive Radiometer) Multispectral EOIR satellite system, two separate scans were made of the area, one during daylight hours and one during the nigh time. By subtracting affects of albedo, topographic shading and effects of vegetative cover using Near-Infrared imagery, it allowed for the measurement of the apparent thermal inertia of the materials beneath the soils around Visoko. Several confined areas of low thermal inertia were detected, highlighted within the square boxes (Figure 13), indicating that the materials below the surface in these areas cool faster than those of the immediate surroundings. Lower densities, increased porosity and internal cavities are expected of buried artificial structures and as such would affect the rate at which heat is irradiated from the surface.Further evidence brought forth by biologist Dr Sulejman Redžić from the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the University of Sarajevo supports the interpretation of the satellite data. He made the observation that the biodiversity growing upon the flanks of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is different to that of the surrounding hills beyond the Pyramid Valley. He was able to identify several plant species better suited to a warmer, Mediterranean climate which usually do not grow within the climatic conditions of the area. It was later observed that the soil temperatures were approximately 5 degrees warmer on the Pyramid of the Sun than elsewhere locally. The existence of hollow spaces below the soil surface reduces overall density and therefore not only increases the rate at which heat is lost but also increases the rate at which the area heats up.
Elsewhere within the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, in 2008, under the direction of Dr Semir Osmanagic, a core drilling team set towards drilling vertically through the Tumulus of Vratnica in order to understand its internal composition and structure. Core samples were gained down to a depth of 54m at which point the drill bit broke due to the machinery coming into contact with extremely hard material samples (Photo 5).The damaged equipment was replaced and as work commenced extra lubrication fluid was pumped down to the cutting surface in order to better protect the machinery. For two more meters the drill bit struggled on through the extra dense and hard material until suddenly it dropped and fell through 4 meters of hollow space before continuing on through another two meters of identically hard material. The interpretation of this section of core sampling in other words suggests that a hollow chamber exists below the surface and that it has a ceiling and flooring consisting of an extremely hard substance. 
5) Geopolymer Composition
In 1982 Joseph Davidovits, an expert in materials science and geopolymer chemistry analysed a piece of limestone sampled from the ascending passage of the Great Pyramid of Giza. His observations prompted him to suggest that rather than the stone blocks simply being shaped after quarrying, the materials used within the construction of the Great Pyramid had been artificially manufactured on the scale of microns and were in fact a form of ancient geopolymer technology. What Davidovits found with an optical microscope (Photo 6) is that the stone material used within the pyramid contained amorphous, undefined silicates whereas limestone originating from the Turah quarry nearby contained the „as would be expected‟ crystalline formed silicates. For Davidovits, the lack of silicate crystallization inferred that the silicates within the Pyramid stone must have precipitated within a very short timeframe, contrary to geological processes, and that this was evidence of a cementitious process. More recently, Davidovits has put his specialist knowledge of geopolymer chemistry towards the testing of materials sampled from the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. Specifically, a sample was removed from within the Tumulus Vratnica and was part of the extremely dense and hard material mentioned in the previous section above, which destroyed a drill bit trying to penetrate through it. Davidovits, with the aid of an electron scanning microscope (Photo 7) concluded that the material is calcium/ potassium based geopolymer cement consisting of quartz crystals and muscovite mica. The sample also displayed similar instances of air bubbles to those identified within the 1982 Giza sample. 
Supporting Davidovits findings, similar analysis have taken place on material sampled from the outer casing of the Pyramid of the Sun. Often being mistaken as naturally occurring “conglomerate,” it has been confirmed by at least five institutions including “The Politecnico Di Torino” Department of Chemistry and „The Institute for Materials at the University of Zenica, as being an artificial concrete-like material. Testing carried out by Dr Azra Kurtović at “The institute of Material and Construction” within the University of Sarajevo confirmed the samples displayed not only properties of concrete but that the strength of those samples were superior to most concretes produced by today’s modern industrial processes (Photo 9). A strength exceeding 70Mpa was measured though some samples tested at the University of Zenica were recorded as having strengths of over 130Mpa, whereas modern day concrete usually will not exceed 40Mpa. The same material was also found to be as much as 5 times more resistant to water than its modern day counterpart, with its capability for absorption rated at no greater than 1.1%, making it an extremely resistant material.
Chemical analysis has found the Pyramid of the Sun concrete to be predominantly composed of carbonates followed by silicates and kaolinitic clays. It is by the heating of calcite (limestone) to temperatures in excess of 825°, forming quicklime (CaO) and the heating of the kaolin clay to within a temperature range of 500°-700°, forming the highly reactive metakaolin, that the combination of both products bind the concrete constituent parts together, attributing to its superior strength.
Noted again by biologist Dr Sulejman Redžić was the fact that the roots of pine trees on the Northern face of the Sun Pyramid, which had been recently planted as part of a government initiative, were unable to penetrate below the concrete layers. As it is often observed while excavating, the tree roots once reaching the concrete, start to grow horizontally rather than vertically. Elsewhere, the same tree species roots have been observed being able to penetrate as deep as 20m into the lasva conglomerates thus differentiating the material found on the Sun Pyramid to that of the naturally occurring geology it is often mistaken for.
Further evidence for the artificial nature of the material the Pyramid of the Sun is composed of is the permanent geomorphologic drainage features upon the structure, or rather, the lack of.
Comparing the Pyramid of the Sun with two hills featuring facets approximately triangular, we see that both Hazen Hill and Fowler Hill have permanent drainage channels upon their surfaces, whereas the Pyramid of the Suns undamaged facets do not (Figure 14). Over time, running surface water is seen to carve through the topsoil and bedrock of the two naturally triangular faced hills, producing gullies or minor streams over their surfaces. Upon the Pyramid of the Sun, due to its superior water resistant geopolymer concrete, it is seen to be impervious to the erosive power of water and therefore no permanent drainage channels are able to form.
6) Composite Blocks
Photos 10, 11 & 12 display a section of the outer casing on the lower levels of the Northern face of the Pyramid of the Sun. This material is composed of pebbles, predominantly quartzite, mixed with the afore mentioned quicklime and metakaolin, forming an incredibly strong and resistant conglomerate-like geopolymer concrete. At this exposure the material is formed into blocks displaying numerous right angles and flat facets. Natural conglomerates containing mixed clast sizes and compositions do not weather so evenly therefore such perfectly flat sides would never be observed if this was indeed a natural geological formation millions of years old.
The red arrows in photo 11 & 12 identify instances where quartzite pebbles, rather than protruding as they do on the upper surface, appear to have been sliced through, in order to produce a planar surface. Quartzite is an incredibly hard crystalline rock making it extremely unlikely that multiple instances of such a phenomena can be explained by natural weathering/rock fracturing processes.
The occurrence of this phenomenon across opposing facets of the same block and on other blocks nearby also discounts faulting as the cause of this phenomenon. The dashed green line in photo 11 indicates where a change in composition presents itself between the surface layer and the main body of the block. The dashed red line indicates a further subtle change in composition but this change is horizontal in nature, not vertical. It appears that towards the right hand side of the block, its surface layer contains more binding cement than on the left. Again, there are no natural geological processes that can explain this sudden horizontal change in composition. Nature simply does not work in this way therefore it must be explained as an action of intelligence regardless of whether or not we can understand its motive.
Across the surface of the geopolymer “concrete” blocks are also numerous instances whereby the quartzite pebbles have been sliced through (as identified in photos 11 & 12) but then have been rejoined together. It appears to be the case that sections of the concrete blocks have been formed, cut and bonded back together with a calcium carbonate bonding agent, as is seen photos 13, 14 & 15. This crystalline adhesive may at first appear to be the product of natural vein mineralization, whereby water percolating through the conglomerate-like material had deposited its mineral content within the rock pore spaces, however this is not the case. These adhesive bands run through the entire thickness of each block and are laterally extensive, running in perfectly straight lines across the whole of each exposure (10m+), through pebbles of varying compositions.
It can be noted in the three images above that the calcium carbonate is not flush with the rest of the exposure but protrudes outwards by as much as a centimetre. If this were to be a natural mineral vein it would infer that there must have been at least a centimetres worth of eroded material missing of the rock in which the vein had cross-cut through. However, because calcium carbonate is substantially softer than the surrounding material, if any erosion were to have taken place it would have been the vein that would have been eroded, not the harder and more resistant cross-cut conglomerate-like material. The adhesive, placed between the surface of two blocks, would have been in liquid form prior to setting solid as “drip like” formations can be noted along the bonded seal, just as mayonnaise seeps out between two slices of bread in a sandwich when placed under compression.
Over on the Moon Pyramid, photos 17, 18 are taken from an excavation site called “Sonda 20” which is situated approximately 1/3rd of the way up the Moon Pyramids Western face (photo 24, 25). What was revealed by the works undertaken in 2011 were carefully placed, engineered stone blocks interbedded with clean marls, running along a North-South axis. Every block is different in shape and interlocks with its neighbour as a jigsaw. The obvious difference here between the Pyramid of the Sun and the Moon is that the former has its outer layers composed of massive and extensive concrete blocks whereas the latter appears to be built with much more finesse, making use of predominantly softer, finer and more delicate materials within its outer layers. Each shaped slab (left) is rich in SiO2, CaO & MgO and could be classified generally in geological terms as being a fine grained carbonitic sandstone, however they are in fact of a composite design consisting of several different components each with subtle chemical and grain size variances.
The outer blocks exposed at “Sonda 20” consist of a central core, light grey in colour, constituting the majority of the bocks mass. The core has placed on its upper surface a thin, soft, finer grained “plate” which is best identified in the two lower images, above. The tapering of the plates edges can be identified most clearly in the lower left image of photo 17, towards the left hand corner of the central block. Laterally, each block is surrounded by a soft, less dense amorphous carbonitic material which has a darker brown colouration to it and is found adhering to all four sides of each block. Where no displacement has occurred, the material appears to be functioning as a sealant and binding agent, holding the blocks together as a grout. The two lower images of photo 17 display the grout and how it has in places become eroded away over time, leaving the central core visible along its sides. As is the case with the Sun Pyramids concrete, the sudden horizontal change in composition from grout to core to grout on every individual block is not a depositional process nature has within its inventory.
A similar phenomenon to what is seen in the images above, occurring when geopolymers are used is found in products produced by a new modern day technology known as additive manufacturing (3D printing). Several manufacturers are using this technology with today’s geopolymers, creating building material and structures out of artificial stone. One leading technologist and geopolymer expert has commented that it is indicative when using geopolymers within additive manufacturing, to find mineral veins with a repetitive pattern, internally throughout the printed structure that are caused by mechanisms within the printing process. Geometric grids or “bricks‟ are created and consequently in-filled with the geopolymer. He noted that his products are so realistic that after a few years of weathering, upon inspection of their surfaces, it would be near impossible for a geologist to differentiate between his products and that of natural stone, without detailed chemical analysis. He added that even then, if the source of the geological materials used to create the geopolymer is taken from the same location as it is intended to be used, it would be even more difficult to differentiate between the natural geology of the area and that of the 3D printed product.
Across the surface of the Moon Pyramid there are also at least two separate instances of manufacturing imperfections that have been identified (Photo 19, 20). The imperfections, produced before the geopolymer had time to fully set and solidify, show the internal structure of the blocks. A
Parallel crystalline lattice of regular intervals is shown running through the blocks interior. Mineral veins in a “geological sense‟ would be seen cross cutting through to the blocks surface, whereas here we observe that beyond the damaged areas there is no cross cutting at the surface.
7) Electromagnetic and Ultrasonic Emissions
In 2010, Physicist Slobodan Mizdrak detected an unusual electromagnetic phenomenon at two locations across the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. Using a scalar gauss meter to detect the presence of magnetic fields and to measure their strength, Mizdrak identified a 4.5m wide confined beam of electromagnetic energy emanating from the top of the Pyramid of the Sun and a similar, though smaller, beam at the top of the Tumulus of Vratnica. Mizdraks preliminary recordings of the electromagnetism indicated that the beams energy was stable and resonating at regular intervals of 4.2 KHz, up to a frequency of 28 KHz. The strength of the beam was measured as developing 30mV when the gauss meter was being held within the beam at a distance of 1m from the surface of the pyramids peak. The voltage was recorded as increasing by a factor of over 130 to 4V when the meter was held at 3m distance from the surface. Hertzian waves are known to dissipate energy as distance increases according to Maxwell’s equations. By the observations made by Mizdrak, that the energy increases with distance from source, it appears that the electromagnetic waveforms being generated and observed on the Pyramid of the Sun are non-Hertzian, longitudinal or “scalar‟ in nature.A year later in 2011, two more investigators independently confirmed Mizdraks initial findings by repeatedly detecting the electromagnetic phenomena, employing a variety of different apparatus to that which Mizdrak utilized. Using a custom made shielded coil antenna paired with a spectral analyser, Physicist Davor Jadrijević was able to ascertain that the electromagnetic beam is unidirectional, in that it has only a single vector which occurs perpendicular approximate to the surface of the structure. Goran Marjanovich, an electrical engineer who works with Tesla designed technologies, after taking his measurements within the Bosnian Pyramid Valley noted that the height at which the top of the Pyramid of the Sun sits above sea level (762m) is almost the same measure as Nikola Tesla’s transformer’s secondary coil wire length (781m) and that of his “Extra” coil solenoid (778m). The length of these wires within the coils were fundamental to the frequencies at which Telsa’s devices operated at, which for his wireless electrical transmission experiments operated between the frequencies of 1-100Khz, favouring frequencies between 25 – 35KHz which Telsa found “to be most economical‟ and are coincidentally within a range to that of the Bosnian Pyramids EM frequency. 
In the same year as Mizdraks 2010 electromagnetic study, research team SBRG came to Visoko and studied the archaeoacoustic properties of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. The team, led by anthropologist Prof. Paolo Derbertolis and assisted by sound engineer Heikki Savolainen, used professional sound recording equipment allowing measurement and recording of both audible sound and inaudible subsonic and ultrasonic mechanical waveforms. During their investigations SBRG detected ultrasonic emissions present at the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, near to the source of the EM beam. It was found that the ultrasonic frequencies being emitted by the pyramid had an almost exact and continuous frequency to that of the electromagnetism (28 kHz) .
The production of the pyramid ultrasound can be attributed to the presence of large amounts of quartz within the construction material of the Pyramid itself. The quartz, when an electrical field is applied, generates an amount of internal mechanical strain within each individual crystal, causing it to vibrate at a frequency high enough to produce ultrasound. This phenomenon, known as the piezo-electric effect, is therefore a response to the electromagnetism that the pyramid is emitting.
Dr. Harry Oldfield, another investigator who came to the Bosnian Pyramid Valley, is a pioneer in the field of what he calls “Polycontrast Interference Photography‟. This photographic technique, using a computer controlled scanning device, is able to detect and measure the interaction between photons and any present energy-fields, both naturally occurring and otherwise. Photo 28, left is what the PIP camera displays when scanning a regular hill near to the Pyramid of the Sun. The naturally occurring magnetic fields of the Earth interact with the ambient light to produce horizontal bands over the landscape. When Dr Oldfield turned his scanning equipment towards the Sun Pyramid (Photo 28, right), the energy field properties are found to be distinctly different from that of a natural hill, shifting the display to produce near vertical bands. 
8) Sacred Landscape
In the small village of Ginje, 5km South East from the centre of Visoko, there exists an artificially constructed hill composed of earth and stone blocks (Figure 1, F & Photo 29). Though this mound is very much smaller than the giant Pyramids nearby, its shape and size has been carefully calculated in order to provide a unique and important viewing perspective of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. The mound, now surrounded by dwellings, reaches a height of 20m+ and has a long axis of at least 150m, orientated approximately NW-SE towards the Pyramid of the Sun. The top of the mound is flattened with an oval shape and has convex sides displaying a small degree of terracing running around the structure.
At several different positions around the mound 10 huge regularly shaped conglomerate blocks are visible, both at the surface of the flat top and poking out from under the vegetation along the terracing (Photo 30). The sizes of the blocks vary but range from at least 2m x 1m x 1m and weigh in excess of 8 tons each. The local museum staff attribute the site as being a medieval necropolis, the blocks being used as grave markers though it is likely that many of the blocks present at the surface of the mound are no longer in their original positions.
According to the villagers, during the mid 20th century many of the blocks on the surface of the structure had been removed and used as building material for nearby buildings. The recently displaced blocks visible at the top of the mound may have been too large to remove from the site for construction purposes without specialist lifting equipment. The main road running through the village, which dates from at least the time of Roman occupation, has a wall along side it that is constructed from smaller conglomerate blocks loosely mortared together. The foundations of the Mosque nearby are also built using blocks that had been dragged off the mound.
On the ground, the importance of this archaeological site comes into full effect when stood on the mounds 20m high flat top. From this vantage point it is 506m above sea level. Looking towards the Pyramid of the Sun, the landscape pulls together, producing several topographical alignments that are not random but calculated down to the degree.
Seen in figures 15 & 16, the centre axis to the Pyramid of the Sun is positioned North-West, 3975m away from Ginje mound. The bearing is exactly 333°. Along this bearing a virtual horizon, 0° inclination, can be made using the topography in front of the observer. The location where the leading edge of Temple of Mother Earth (blue) falls behind a hillside in front of Ginje, the height is a pairing with the mound at 506m. Using the identified virtual horizon, along the bearing of 333°, the peak of the Pyramid of the Sun (Green) is at an inclination of 3.75°. The plateau of the Pyramid of Love (Yellow) which is found in front of the Pyramid of Sun is at an inclination of 2.5°. The North-East and South-West corners of the Sun Pyramid fall behind the Love Pyramids plateau at 2.5° left of axis and 2.5° right of axis. It is also made to appear that the North Eastern corner of the Pyramid of the Sun falls parallel with the South Eastern corner of the Love Pyramid. The image below highlights the prior measurements with a crosshair along the bearing 333°, its centre resting on top of the Pyramid of Love. Within the diagram are also two buttresses upon the flanks of Cetnica that have been highlighted. The leading edge of the most southerly buttress identifies 10° left, with 10° right being identified where Temple of Mother Earths peak flattens out, towards its spot height.
At this location, that both the peak of the Sun Pyramid and the associated measures noted above are only visible from the top of the Ginje mound indicates that its position and height is deliberate and purposeful. Deborah L. Nichols, an anthropologist who studies Mesoamerican archaeology comments that “Sacred places and landscapes are created and evolve through human acts. While these places may reflect the cosmological organizing principles of society, they are not merely cosmograms but dynamic, complex landscapes created as settings for the reenactments of mytho-historical narratives.” 
As can be seen by the silhouette formed by the Visoko pyramid landscape (Figure 16), it resembles that of the constellation Cassiopeia. The mytho-historical narrative displayed via the landscape presented from Ginje Mound is undoubtedly through the depiction of this star constellation, which in the past would have risen from behind, to directly above the centre of the landscape immediately after the winter solstice sunset, approximately 16000 years ago (Figure 17).
By this connection between the structures on the ground and with the “Gods‟ in the heavens above, the hermetic maxim “As above, so below‟, as expressed most eloquently by Hermes Trismegistus in his “Emerald tablet,” is forever enshrined within the Sacred Landscape of Visoko. Through the Ancient Greek mythology of Cassiopeia, it tells us of a beautiful but vein and arrogant queen who would constantly boast of her physical beauty and that of her daughters, ‘Andromeda’. This indiscretion of vanity and materialism is said to have caused Poseidon, God of the Sea, to become angry and punish Cassiopeia by attempting to flood her entire kingdom. Wherever or whenever this myth originated, the message transferred down to us from the designers of the Visoko Pyramid Valley may have been that of a warning or of a prediction, for their civilisations inevitable demise.
9) Tunnel System
2.5km North West from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is an entrance way to an underground tunnel system that spans for many 100s of metres, and perhaps, much further. The tunnels, which have been created through a geological deposit known as a “conglomerate,” vary in shape and size and have many turnings and junction points that lead to yet more passageways, all heading in a variety of different directions underground.
Once thought of by locals as being a cave rather than an entranceway to a tunnel system, the passages had at some point in the past been blocked up, leaving much of the subterranean network impassable and therefore unexplored. In recent years, excavation work under the direction of Dr Osmanagic and with help from the international team of volunteers, have slowly begun to unblock these passages in an effort to reach the Pyramid of the Sun, believing the tunnels to connect with the Sun pyramids internal chambers from below. Presently over 750m of the tunnel system have been emptied, heading in a direction towards the Pyramid.
As the loose rubble material which blocked the tunnels was removed, revealed were many interesting features including tens of dry stone walls, each positioned along the main passageways, behind which further blocked up tunnels were located. The presence of such constructions within the Ravne tunnels unequivocally points to the fact that the subterranean network, or at least the blocking of it, was the product of intelligence at work and is not the action of water eroding or depositing material whilst flowing through the loosely consolidated rock. As the material used in the construction of the dry stone walls is not found locally within the conglomerate deposit, it infers significant effort was directed towards the building of these mysterious structures, the primary purpose of which seems likely to be in order to hold back and keep in place the blocking material.
The most enigmatic objects currently identified within the Ravne tunnel network are what have been termed the “Megaliths.” These objects appear to be shaped/moulded sculptures that are composed of a silacious geopolymer cement and have two parts in their construction; a main body and a lid on top. The Egg shaped megalith, which was the first of the megaliths to be discovered (Photo 34), measures approximately 1.26m x 1.04m x 0.36m and has an estimated weight of 350kgs. The second megalith to be found is currently the largest to have been fully exposed, measuring 2.60m x 200m x 0.40m, with an estimated weight of 8 tonnes (Photo 35). This megalith is named K2 and is positioned upon a sandstone plinth indicating its chosen location, where we find it today, had been intentional.
Currently there have been no less than seven “Megalith‟ type objects identified within the Ravne tunnels. All composed of a similar material, though each has their own unique shape and size. The purpose of these sculptures is currently uncertain but, through georadar scans and dowsing techniques, it has been discovered that these large and anomalous objects are placed above moving groundwater streams, a similar practice employed in the placement of other stone megaliths elsewhere around the world. Each megalith upon discovery is also found buried and encased within the surrounding conglomerate material rather than being beside it within the tunnels, as the dry stone walls are. This situation indicates that the creation and placement of these large stone „Megalith‟ objects preceded both the creation of the tunnels and the depositional event that brought the large amounts of quartzite conglomerate material to this location in the first case.
The presence of the Ravne tunnel network in close proximity to the Bosnian Pyramid complex is not such an unusual find, relatively speaking, but rather follows a distinctive trend which other pyramid sites follow. Known most recently from the time of Roman occupation, the Egyptian Pyramids of Giza have many caverns and passages underneath the ground on which they were built. Photo 38 displays a section of underground passages beneath the Tomb of Birds, also known as NC2, which is located towards the North of the Giza Plateau. Here the passages have been formed through solid limestone rock and run for hundreds of meters below the surface, towards the Great Pyramid itself. In Mexico, underneath the pyramids of Teotihuacan outside Mexico City, archaeologists in 2010 identified passageways beneath the historical site. Suspected of leading to previously undiscovered subterranean chambers or tombs, the underground passages of Teotihuacan, like at Ravne, have also been meticulously sealed by loose rubble material (Photo 36). As is the case in Visoko, efforts to unblock these passages are now underway.
 http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-mystery-of-bosnias-ancient-pyramids-148990462/#ixzz2Fox7dIva  http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/osmanagic/zahi_hawass.pdf
 ICBP 2008 p.730 – Muris Osmanagic
 “Survey of Remote Sensing Techniques Used for the Anomaly Detection at the Presumed “Pyramid” Locality near Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina”, Amer Smailbegovic, 2006.
 Rosicrucian Manual p.62-63 – Harvey Spencer Lewis
 http://www.n01a.org/pdf/Goran-Marjanovic-Pyramids-Guardians-of-primary-cosmic-vibration-of-the-local-densities.pdf  “Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla’s Experimentally Determined Propagation Model,” K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 3n. http://www.sbresearchgroup.eu/index.php/en/articoli-in-inglese/100-we-recorded-the-voice-of-the-pyramid-of- the-sun-visocica-hill
 The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology – Deborah L. Nichols
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