Rich Hoyle, Contributor
In October of 2005, international media covered a sensational story of a man claiming to have discovered a group of huge, previously unknown ancient Pyramids in Europe. The man, Anthropologist Dr. Semir Osmanagic, made the fantastic announcement to journalists that he had found the biggest and oldest pyramids in the world and incredibly they were to be found buried in the most unlikely of places… Bosnia. The ancient structures, Osmanagic explained, were buried in the hillsides surrounding a small sleepy town called Visoko, located 25km North-West of the Bosnian Capital, Sarajevo. The town, now barely known for its once booming leather industry, would become the centre of a fierce international debate which, after eight years, continues on through to this day.
In 2006, after initial probing and surveying, Osmanagic created the not for profit, “Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation” and in the summer of that year large scale excavations began. Almost immediately after Osmanagic started his project the authenticity of his miraculous find was to be called into question. Zahi Hawass, archaeologist and later becoming “Egyptian Minister of Antiquities,” released a statement in June of 2006 in which he strongly criticised Osmanagic and his Pyramid hypothesis. Giving his reasons, Hawass referred to several large blocks that had been excavated by the research teams, explaining that “No one can say that these stones were transported by human beings since each weighs approximately 40 tons.” Hawass’s explanation for the blocks and the pyramid shaped hill was to be that Osmanagic must be “hallucinating” , denying the existence of any pyramids in Bosnia. Dr Robert Schoch, a geologist of notoriety for his study of the Egyptian Sphinx, also issued a disagreeable statement after he visited the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids that year. In his comments of the trip, Schoch said he saw nothing unusual in the hills around the Bosnian town. In a similar fashion to that of Hawass, Schoch’s sentiment towards Osmanagic’s theory was that the Pyramids must be “imaginary” and that the pyramids are nothing more than natural geological formations. Later, at the end of the first year of excavations, in December 2006, seven prominent members of the European Association of Archaeologists issued a condemning joint statement. The archaeologists, including Director of the Council for British Archaeology, Dr. Mike Heyworth and another, Professor Hermann Parzinger, President of the German Archaeological Institute, accused Osmanagic of duping the world with his claims of pyramids in Bosnia. In their statement it read, “This [Pyramid] scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science.”. However, despite the barrage of strong condemnation Osmanagic and his team have continued investigating the sites around Visoko for a further eight years.
According to Osmanagic, there are no fewer than 5 buried Pyramids within the vicinity of the town of Visoko with a possibility for as many as nine in total. The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, the largest and most obviously pyramidal in shape of the Bosnian Pyramids, is over 270m tall and has an estimated mass 39 times greater than that of the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt . At 190m tall, the second largest of the Bosnian Pyramids is the “Pyramid of the Moon,” which is no less than 50m taller than the Egyptian Great Pyramid. Close by to the Moon Pyramid towards the South-West is an unusually shaped structure named “Temple of Mother Earth‟. This structure has a form similar to that of a crescent moon or amphitheatre and is of an impressive size, equalling that of its neighbouring Pyramids. Surrounding the Bosnian pyramid complex are also numerous, more modestly sized supporting structures including mounds and tumuli, the most accessible of which is found several kilometres North East from the centre of the pyramid complex. Named after the village in which it is found, “Vratnica Tumulus‟ is of a similar conical shape and size to the famous tumulus “Silbury Hill‟, located in Wiltshire, UK. Osmanagic also claims that the presence of numerous subterranean passages found under Visoko belong to the Pyramid complex, interconnecting each of the structures from below and running for as many as hundreds of kilometres beneath the ground.
Because of the shear size of the site, as it stands today the meticulous work undertaken by Dr Semir Osmanagic has resulted in less than 1% of the Pyramidal structures to have been so far uncovered, leaving much of the evidence which would support Osmanagic‟s theory still buried beneath the soil. With limited financial backing from the local Bosnian government, Osmanagic relies substantially on an international team of volunteers which make their way to Visoko each summer to assist with the excavations. Since 2010, hundreds of inquisitive people from as far away as Peru, Argentina,
Malaysia and Australia have made the journey to donate their time and efforts to the project, with people in their hundreds of thousands also visiting as tourists to see the progress of the project for themselves. But can all of these people, like Osmanagic, be suffering from a shared delusion, mistaking naturally formed hills for giant pyramids? Surely after eight years, if the case against Osmanagic’s theory were so strong, shouldn’t this hoax have been laid to rest by now? Perhaps. Or perhaps not, as the majority of those who criticise the project rather than providing sound scientific evidence supporting their position unfortunately resort to the age old tactic of character assassination, targeting the qualities of the man rather than the factual evidence Osmanagic presents. On the other side of the argument then, what, if any, is the evidence that supports Osmanagic’s so-called outlandish claims? Is Osmanagic really suffering from an eight year prolonged hallucination or can he substantiate his history changing theory with factual evidence?
Here then below are nine cases of evidence that support Osmanagic’s grand Bosnian pyramid theory, which remain unaddressed by those who stand against the existence of Pyramids in Bosnia.
1) Cardinal Alignments
The Bosnian Pyramid of Sun, Moon and Dragon each have their four facets perfectly aligned towards the cardinal points, North, South, East and West. This orientation is a common property shared amongst many of the globes ancient Pyramids including the Pyramids of Egypt; Giza and those of China; Shaanxi Province (Photos 3&4). Unique however to the Visoko complex is the fact that the three main Pyramids each have one of their sides built into the landscape surrounding them, providing an “access plateau‟ to their peaks, which is unlike the common “free-standing” pyramid design seen elsewhere around the globe. Confirmation of the Bosnian Pyramids exactitude with geographic North has been obtained by both topographic mapping and satellite imagery. Measurements carried out by Dr. Amer Smailbegovic using the “Automated Linear-Anomaly Detector” satellite system, used for measuring tectonic lineaments, confirmed break angles of 43.822 degrees (+/- 1.6) at three of the undamaged corners (Figure 2). The exception is the South West corner of the Sun Pyramid, having become eroded in recent times, possibly due to the presence of an abandoned quarry where material was extracted from. The strong outer casing of the ancient giant pyramid structure was used in order to build the now ruined medieval fortress at the top of the Sun Pyramid, where Bosnian royalty once resided. 
Visual observation of the Sun Pyramids perfect alignment with the cardinal points can also be made, as is captured in Photo 2. The aerial photograph displays how late afternoon sunlight clearly illuminates the Pyramid of the Suns Western facet and access plateau while the Northern face remains in complete shadow. Not only does the photograph above highlight the incredible accuracy to which the facets of this pyramid have been built to but that it also displays the exact continuation of slope angle between the base and peak of the Northern corners.
2) Topographical Alignments
As well as being aligned with the four cardinal points, the Pyramidal structures of Visoko also share alignments that are relative to each other (Figure 3). The first and most striking of the structural alignments present is the near perfect equilateral triangle formed between the peaks of the Sun, Moon and Dragon pyramids. Each side of this triangle is 2.2km in length (+/- 2%) and has three internal angles of 60°. Further, by producing a circumcircle around the equilateral triangle it encapsulates the peak of another topographic highpoint South-West from the Sun Pyramid. Named Cetnica, this spot height is the second highest peak in the area and is also found to have four facets, each orientated according to the cardinal points. Nearby, the highest peak within the local vicinity of Visoko is Krtnica, found west from Cetnica. By drawing a line (1) between the two highest peaks and extending that line eastwards, it indicates that both Krtnica and Cetnica are aligned with the Sun-Moon-Dragon equilateral triangles barycentre.
Line (2) indicates that the spot height of the Pyramid of the Moon lies at a vector exactly east from the spot height of the Pyramid of Love. This line when extended in a Westerly direction past the Pyramid of Love reaches yet another spot height as yet unnamed, its shape distinctly tetrahedral. The third line (dark blue/purple (3)) is constructed along three spot heights; The Pyramid of Sun, The Pyramid of Love and the Temple of Mother Earth. It can be seen that the distance between the Sun and Love spot heights along this vector is exactly 1/3rd of the length of the entire line. The final alignment (4) highlighted in the above diagram shows that the peaks of Cetnica and the Pyramid of the Moon occur along the same vector, terminating at the spot height of Smreke, an elongated mound behind the Pyramid of the Moon, towards the East.
With these examples, it demonstrates that numerous topographic alignments reaffirm each other, particularly those of Cetnica, Sun, Moon and Love, tying in all of the structures together. Their existence infers the valley must have been designed in its entirety according to certain principles first, prior to being built, and that it is not the result of tectonic forces deforming the landscape in a random fashion. The figure of a circumscribed triangle similar to that formed by the alignments of the Bosnian Pyramids is a particular glyph that has been revered and adapted symbolically throughout the ages by many a school of thought.
Within the Christian doctrine the triangle is used to represent the Holy Trinity, seen depicting the triune nature of God. The all encompassing circle that is added to surround the triangle represents the universe, or eternity, the limit of which is that of God himself. The medieval philosophical society of the Rosicrucians would also use it as their symbol of creation, known to them as the “Tetragrammaton” . In this Rosicrucian ideogram (Figure 5) the circle is replaced by Nehushstan the serpent, seen swallowing its own tail and representing Earthly creation made manifest, with the power of perpetual motion and self sufficiency.
By those who practice the art of Astrology, the figure of the circumscribed triangle has been used diagrammatically within an individuals horoscope or birth chart (Figure 6). During a time when three planets move to align themselves in the form an equilateral triangle the arrangement is known as the “Grand Trine” and accordingly is a significant and powerful event for that individual. Alchemists have also utilized the triangle and circle, combined with the square and a smaller circle within (figure 4). To the alchemists this figure represents the mystical properties of Pythagorean geometry and is often referred to as the symbol for ‘Squaring the Circle.” This alchemical symbol may also be used to represent the four elements with water as the inner circle, the square for earth, the outer circle for air and the triangle as fire, or in Greek “Pyr.”
Within the Visoko Pyramid Valley a second group of topographic alignments also exists concurrently with the primary group, extending far beyond the central equilateral triangle. Figure 7 shows how various spot heights are aligned with each other along two separate axis (black lines), one running exactly North-South, the other approximately East-West (Note; alignments extend beyond the limits of the included figure). This arrangement, which may at first appear simply as a chance occurrence, by connecting Centnica peak found along the N-S axis with the spot height of Cella on the opposite side of the valley upon the E-W axis, it produces a triangle with base angles of approximately 51° (solid red lines). The significance of finding such a triangle hidden within the Visoko Pyramid Valley topography is made apparent when one recounts that the Great Pyramid of Giza‟s slope inclination is measured as being 51° 50′ 40″ and therefore is of the same proportion. 
To add further significance, such a triangle can be used to represent our own Earth-Moon planetary system. In figure 7, the blue inner circle has its centre placed at the triangles bisector, with its diameter equalling that of the triangles total base length. A second outer circle, with its radius identical to the height of the triangle can be drawn, seen touching the triangles apex. At this point a third, smaller circle can be created, its centre at the apex of the triangle and its radius made to reach down to the inner circle. In this way, the third and smallest circle is of a proportion to the inner circle exactly as the Moon is in proportion to the Earth. This arrangement, as is the case of figure 4 previously, also represents the “Squaring of the Circle,” which can be seen within the image inlay of figure 7. Here, the length of the grey squares side is equal to the diameter of the inner circle, while the perimeter of the square is equal to the circumference of the largest outer circle.
3) Sixteen Wind Cartography
In Ancient Greece, maritime admiral and geographer “Timosthenes‟ introduced the use of a 12 pointed, or twelve wind compass which, used for navigation, divided 360° into 12 equal divisions of 30°. By using a 6×6 square grid based on the length of a degree, a 12 wind system made it easy to draw equilateral triangles. Using the equator as the baseline, accurate trisecting of a hemisphere was made possible. Later another Ancient Greek, “Eratosthenes,” who has been mistakenly ascribed as being first to calculate the Earths circumference, abandoned the 12 wind system for the more simple 8 wind compass design. Based on a 4×4 grid this system bisected angles, rather than trisected, and produced equal divisions of 45° within a 360° circumference. It was this method of using 8 points that was favoured later by Roman navigators and continued to be used throughout the medieval period.
The concept of using a square grid made it possible to accurately produce lines of latitude upon a plane. By drawing one of the vertical grid lines according to True (geographic) North, a meridian of longitude would be produce, therefore any line which intersected at 90° would be a line of latitude.Charles Hapgood, who produced a magnificent cartographic investigation through his book “Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings,” studied amongst others, the Piri Reis map (Figure 10). Composed by an Ottoman admiral in 1513, Hajji Ahmed Muhiddin Piri collected cartographic fragments from many different sources in order to compile his famous map. Many of these fragments are believed to be copies of copies, passed on through the ages prior to coming into the possession of Piri Reis himself. One of several important observations made by Hapgood and others is that the Piri Reis map can be seen to depict the coastlines of Africa and South America with a longitudinal accuracy discrepancy of less than half a degree. An anomaly to say the least as at the time of composition it was thought impossible to accurately calculate longitude, due to technological limitations of timekeeping. Not only this but it is also believed that the map contains an accurate representation of parts of the Antarctic coastline prior to how it appears in more recent times with its extended ice sheet cover. Hapgood was able to surmise that the centre of the Piri Reis map was calculated around Egypt having realised that the underlying geometry behind the map was based upon the use of 8×8 grids. Similar to the Ancient Greek 4×4 8 wind navigation system, the 8×8 grid system produces 16 wind Rose des vents with intervals of 22.5°. By using the 8×8 grids it allowed for accurate mapping of a spherical surface upon a flat plane as a separate grid could be used for each map fragment, using different north